Kenali Gejala dan Cara Mengatasi Pneumonia saat Hamil

Pneumonia saat hamil atau maternal pneumonia merupakan salah satu infeksi pada paru-paru  yang mengakibatkan peradangan di salah satu atau kedua paru. Salah satu keluhan yang sering dialami oleh ibu hamil yang menderita pneumonia adalah sesak napas.

Gejala dan Cara Mengatasi Pneumonia

Pneumonia bisa disebabkan oleh kuman, seperti haemophilus influenzamycoplasma pneumoniae, dan streptococcuss pneumoniae. Penularan infeksi ini terjadi melalui batuk dan cairan dahak (droplet) yang dikeluarkan oleh seorang penderita pneumonia

Bumil yang merokok, memiliki sistem kekebalan tubuh yang rendah, menderita anemia, asma, atau penyakit kronis memiliki kemungkinan lebih besar mengalami pneumonia.

Salah satu keluhan yang sering dirasakan penderita pneumonia adalah batuk dan sesak napas. Selain itu, pneumonia saat hamil ditandai dengan gejala berupa kelelahan, sakit kepala, nyeri dada, demam tinggi (suhu mencapai 40°C), berkeringat, dan muntah.

Jika Bumil mengalami beberapa gejala di atas, segera periksakan kondisi kesehatan ke dokter kandungan, agar bisa diketahui penyebab pastinya dan diberikan penanganan yang tepat. Penanganan yang tepat dapat mengurangi risiko  komplikasi kehamilan, seperti keguguran, gangguan pernapasan, bayi lahir prematur, dan bayi lahir dengan berat badan rendah.

Untuk mengetahui secara tepat penyakit yang Bumil derita, setelah dilakukan tanya jawab dan pemeriksaan fisik, dokter akan melakukan pemeriksaan pendukung, seperti pemeriksaan laboratorium dengan mengambil sampel dahak, pemeriksaan darah, dan  rontgen paru.

Setelah kondisi pneumonia diketahui, dokter akan memberikan penanganan berupa pemberian obat dan tindakan lain untuk mengatasi pneumonia yang Bumil alami. Selain itu, ibu hamil yang mengalami pneumonia perlu memperbanyak istirahat dan mencukupi kebutuhan cairan.

Cara Mencegah Pneumonia saat Hamil

Cara terbaik untuk mencegah penularan pneumonia adalah melakukan tindakan pencegahan dan meningkatkan daya tahan tubuh ibu hamil. Salah satunya adalah dengan rutin melakukan olahraga. Namun, pilihlah olahraga atau latihan yang sesuai dengan kemampuan Bumil. Bila perlu, berkonsultasilah ke dokter kandungan terlebih dahulu, ya.

Selain itu, beberapa cara berikut bisa juga dilakukan, seperti:

  • Rajin mencuci tangan.
  • Mengonsumsi makanan bergizi.
  • Mencukupi kebutuhan tidur.
  • Menggunakan masker saat akan melakukan aktivitas luar ruangan atau bertemu dengan banyak orang.
  • Menghindari kontak langsung dengan orang sedang sakit.
  • Melakukan vaksinasi.

Pneumonia saat hamil tidak dapat dianggap remeh. Segera periksakan diri ke dokter jika Bumil mengalami gejala-gejala yang dipaparkan di atas. Jangan lupa juga untuk rutin melakukan pemeriksaan kehamilan, agar kondisi Bumil dan Si Kecil dalam kandungan dapat terpantau.

Ditinjau oleh: dr. Merry Dame Cristy Pane

Referensi :

Sim, et al. (2014). The use of facemasks to prevent respiratory infection: a literature review in the context of the Health Belief Model. Singapore Medical Journal, 55(3) , pp. 160-167.
Goodnight, W., & Soper, D. et al. (2005). Pneumonia in Pregnancy. Clinical Care Medicine, 33 (10 Suppl), S390-S397.
American Lung Association (2019). Learn About Pneumonia.
The American College of Obsteritcians and Gynecologists (2017). Exercise During Pregnancy.
Family Doctor (2018). Pneumonia.
Cherney, K. Healthline (2017). What Happens When You Develop Pneumonia While Pregnant?.
NHS Choices UK (2016). Common Health Question. Is Pneumonia Contagious?.
DerSakissian, C. WebMD (2018). Do I Have Pneumonia?.

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