Beberapa Informasi Persalinan yang Perlu Diketahui para Calon Ibu

Berikut ini adalah beberapa informasi penting yang perlu Bumil ketahui sebelum menjalani persalinan:

1. Tanda-tanda awal persalinan

Ketika sudah mendekati waktu melahirkan, tubuh ibu hamil akan mulai mempersiapkan diri untuk mengeluarkan bayi dari kandungan. Menjelang persalinan, ada beberapa hal yang mungkin akan Bumil alami, yaitu:

  • Tubuh terasa nyeri
    Sebelum melahirkan, tubuh Bumil akan terasa sakit. Rasa nyeri ini bisa berupa nyeri punggung bagian bawah yang mirip dengan nyeri saat menstruasi, serta nyeri atau tekanan pada panggul. Saat keluhan ini muncul, Bumil mungkin akan menjadi sulit beristirahat atau tidur dengan nyenyak.
  • Sering kontraksi
    Kontraksi akan lebih sering dirasakan menjelang persalinan. Ketika mengalami hal tersebut, Bumil akan mengalami mulas atau perut terasa seperti dicengkeram, lalu rileks kembali. Kontraksi dapat muncul secara berkala, misalnya tiap beberapa menit. Mendekati persalinan, kontraksi dapat muncul lebih kuat, lebih lama, dan semakin sering.
  • Air ketuban pecah
    Sebagian besar wanita mengalami pecah ketuban saat persalinan, namun ada juga yang mengalaminya sebelum melahirkan.
    Terkadang sulit untuk mengetahui bahwa air ketuban telah pecah, karena keluarnya air ketuban mungkin mirip dengan urine sehingga sulit untuk dibedakan.
    Jika ragu apakah cairan yang keluar merupakan urine atau air ketuban, Bumil bisa segera ke bidan atau dokter untuk mendapatkan pemeriksaan lebih lanjut.
  • Produksi cairan vagina meningkat
    Cairan vagina akan meningkat jumlahnya ketika hari persalinan tiba. Cairan tersebut berwarna jernih atau pink (merah muda), dan bisa disertai sedikit darah. Kondisi ini terjadi beberapa hari sebelum atau saat persalinan.
  • Mood swing
    Mendekati persalinan, suasana hati Bumil bisa saja menjadi tidak menentu (mood swing). Saat merasakan hal ini, Bumil mungkin akan terbangun dengan perasaan yang sangat bersemangat menyambut kehadiran buah hati ke dunia, namun kemudian bisa tiba-tiba menjadi sedih atau khawatir.

2. Waktu yang tepat untuk ke dokter atau bidan

Bumil disarankan untuk pergi ke rumah sakit atau bidan ketika kontraksi muncul secara teratur selama sekitar 30-60 detik, dan jarak waktu kemunculnya 3-5 menit.

Bumil juga sebaiknya segera ke dokter atau bidan jika mengalami beberapa hal berikut ini:

  • Air ketuban telah pecah
  • Perdarahan vagina
  • Pergerakan bayi berkurang
  • Nyeri perut yang hebat
  • Pusing dan lemas
  • Demam

3. Melahirkan memang menyakitkan

Melahirkan memang menyakitkan, namun Bumil tidak perlu khawatir karena tubuh setiap wanita sudah diciptakan untuk bisa menghadapinya. Lagipula, rasa sakit tersebut bisa memberikan informasi mengenai sejauh mana proses persalinan tengah berlangsung.

Jika tidak tahan dengan rasa sakitnya, coba manfaatkan metode pengurang nyeri persalinan, baik secara medis atau alami. Untuk menentukan metode pengurang nyeri yang tepat, Bumil bisa berkonsultasi dengan dokter kandungan.

4. Proses persalinan tidak bisa diprediksi

Sebenarnya tidak ada yang bisa memprediksi berapa lama proses persalinan normal akan berlangsung. Fase awal persalinan bisa memakan waktu mulai jam hingga hari. Semua itu tergantung pada berbagai faktor, seperti posisi dan ukuran bayi, kekuatan kontraksi, serta seberapa mudah mulut rahim melebar.

Proses persalinan terhitung sejak ibu hamil memasuki fase aktif persalinan. Fase aktif ini ditandai oleh kontraksi yang datangnya lebih kuat, lebih lama (5-60 detik), dan lebih sering (setiap 3-4 menit), serta serviks atau mulut rahim yang telah terbuka sebesar 3-4 cm.

Untuk wanita yang baru pertama kali melahirkan, fase aktif mungkin dapat berlangsung sekitar 8-15 jam, ditambah waktu mengejan sekitar 1-2 jam. Jika Bumil sudah pernah melahirkan, fase aktif mungkin memakan waktu sekitar 5-12 jam, ditambah waktu mengejan selama 10-60 menit.

Setelah bayi lahir, tahapan terakhir dari proses persalinan adalah lahirnya plasenta. Plasenta biasanya akan keluar dari rahim dalam waktu 10-20 menit setelah bayi lahir. Apabila plasenta masih belum keluar hingga 30 menit setelah bayi lahir, dokter akan memberikan penanganan untuk mengeluarkan plasenta.

Meski tanggal prediksi persalinan masih jauh, Bumil dianjurkan untuk membekali diri dengan informasi yang tepat mengenai persalinan. Untuk itu, jangan segan bertanya kepada dokter kandungan atau bidan saat Bumil menjalani pemeriksaan kehamilan rutin.

Semoga Bermanfaat

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